The Marine Effects of Fukushima Radiation (revised)

Sources abound for information on the radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant meltdown after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.  Unfortunately, many of the sources are preying on the fears of people on the U.S. and Canada’s west coast.  Rampant misinformation is generally among the top hits for Google searches. Here’s a nice article to share when you see these ‘shares’: “Stop Passing These Scary Stories about Fukushima Fish around Social Media!” 9/4/2013. Doubtful News.

This bibliography includes resources on Fukushima that have been published about the marine effects of the materials released during the accident. I limited the sources to reputable (meaning signed with citations).  Dates are inclusive from 2011 through the present.

If you have suggestions for additions, deletions, corrections, or sites for articles without links, please email ‘oftl @ critfc.org’.

This image from the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Marine Information System  https://maris.iaea.org shows ocean radiation measurements from December 2016.

  • Alava, Juan Jose, and Frank A.P.C. Gobas. 2016. “Modeling 137Cs Bioaccumulation in the Salmon-Resident Killer Whale Food Web of the Northeastern Pacific Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.” Science of The Total Environment 544 (February): 56–67. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11/097.
  • Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq, Ahmad Termizi Ramli, Nuraddeen Nasiru Garba, Muneer Aziz Saleh, Hamman Tukur Gabdo, and Muhammad Sanusi Liman. 2015. “Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Preliminary Assessment of the Risks to Non-Human Biota.” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 163 (2): 238–50. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncu158.
  • Aoyama, M., Y. Hamajima, Mikael Hult, M. Uematsu, E. Oka, D. Tsumune, and Y. Kumamoto. 2016. “134Cs and 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean Derived from the March 2011 TEPCO Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, Japan. Part One – Surface Pathway and Vertical Distributions.” Journal of Oceanography 72 (1): 53–65. doi:10.1007/s10872-015-0335-z.
  • Aoyama, M., M. Hult, Y. Hamajima, G. Lutter, G. Marissens, H. Stroh, and F. Tzika. 2016. “Tracing Radioactivity from Fukushima in the Northern Pacific Ocean.” Applied Radiation & Isotopes 109: 435–40. doi:10.1016/j.apradiso.2015.11.103.
  • Bailly du Bois, P., P. Laguionie, D. Boust, I. Korsakissok, D. Didier, and B. Fievet. 2012. “Estimation of Marine Source-Term Following Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 114: 2–9. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.015.
  • Behrens, Erik, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Joke F. Lubbecke, and Claus W. Boning. 2012. “Model Simulations on the Long-Term Dispersal of 137Cs Released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima.” Environmental Research Letters 7 (3): 1–10. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034004.
  • Belharet, M., C. Estournel, and S. Charmasson. 2016. “Ecosystem Model-Based Approach for Modeling the Dynamics of 137Cs Transfer to Marine Plankton Populations: Application to the Western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Biogeosciences 13: 499–516. doi:10.5194/bg-13-499-2016.
  • Beresford, Nicholas A., and David Copplestone. 2011. “Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Wildlife: What Knowledge Have We Gained between the Chernobyl and Fukushima Accidents?” Integrated Environmental Assessment & Management 7 (3): 371–73. doi:10.1002/ieam.238.
  • Bezhenar, Roman, Kyung Tae Jung, Vladimir Maderich, Stefan Willemsen, Govert De With, and Fangli Qiao. 2016. “Transfer of Radiocaesium from Contaminated Bottom Sediments to Marine Organisms through Benthic Food Chains in Post-Fukushima and Post-Chernobyl Periods.” Biogeosciences 13: 3021–34. doi:10.5194/bg-13-3021-2016.
  • Black, E.E., and K.O. Buesseler. 2014a. “Spatial Variability and the Fate of Cesium in Coastal Sediments near Fukushima, Japan.” Biogeosciences 11: 5123–37. doi:10.5194/bg-11-5123-2014.
  • ———. 2014b. “Spatial Variability and the Fate of Cesium in Coastal Sediments near Fukushima, Japan: Supplement.” Biogeosciences 11: 5123–37. doi:10.5194/bg-11-5123-2014-supplement.
  • Bond, Nicholas A., Meghan F. Cronin, Howard Freeland, and Nathan Mantua. 2015. “Causes and Impacts of the 2014 Warm Anomaly in the NE Pacific.” Geophysical Research Letters 42 (9): 3414–20. doi:10.1002/2015GL063306.
  • Brumfiel, Geoff. 2012. “Ocean Still Suffering from Fukushima Fallout.” Nature, News & Comment, , November. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11823.
  • Bu, W.T., J. Zheng, T. Aono, K. Tagami, S. Uchida, J. Zhang, M.C. Honda, Q.J. Guo, and M. Yamada. 2013. “Vertical Distributions of Plutonium Isotopes in Marine Sediment Cores off the Fukushima Coast after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Biogeosciences 10: 2497–2511. doi:10.5194/bg-10-2497-2013.
  • Buck, Eugene H., and Harold F. Upton. 2012a. “Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U.S. Marine Environment.” Environmental Research Journal 6 (6): 495–501.
  • ———. 2012b. “Effects of Tohoku Tsunami and Fukushima Radiation on the U.S. Marine Environment.” Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41751.pdf.
  • Buck, Eugene H., Harold F. Upton, and Peter Folger. 2011. “Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U. S. Marine Environment.” Congressional Research Service. .
  • Buesseler, Ken. 2012. “Fukushima Radiation in the Pacific, Overview: Updates (Research Cruise, June 3 – 17, 2011).” Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. May 29. https://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=67796.
  • ———. 2016. “FAQ Radiation from Fukushima.” Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. March. http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=83397&tid=3622&cid=94989.
  • ———. 2017. “How Radioactive Is Our Ocean.” Video presented at the Launch of Center for Marine & Environmental Radiation, Online. Accessed January 18. https://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=7545&cid=101873&tid=7842.
  • Buesseler, Ken, Michio Aoyama, and Masao Fukusawa. 2011. “Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants on Marine Radioactivity.” Environmental Science & Technology 45 (23): 9931–35. doi:10.1021/es202816c.
  • Buesseler, Ken, Minhan Dai, Michio Aoyama, Claudia Benitez-Nelson, Sabine Charmasson, Kathryn Higley, Vladimir Maderich, Pere Masque, Deborah Oughton, and John N. Smith. 2017. “Fukushima Daiichi-Derived Radionuclides in the Ocean: Transport, Fate, and Impacts.” Annual Review of Marine Science 9: 1.1-1.31. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060733.
  • Buesseler, Ken O. 2012. “Fishing for Answers off Fukushima.” Science 338 (6106): 480–82. doi:10.1126/science.1228250.
  • ———. 2013. “Fukushima and the Ocean.” Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. May 9. http://www.whoi.edu/main/morss/fukushima.
  • ———. 2014. “Fukushima and Ocean Radioactivity.” Oceanography 27 (1): 92–105. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2014.02.
  • Buesseler, Ken O., Christopher R. German, Makio C. Honda, Shigeyoshi Otosaka, Erin E. Black, Hajime Kawakami, Steven J. Manganini, and Steven M. Pike. 2015. “Tracking the Fate of Particle Associated Fukushima Daiichi Cesium in the Ocean off Japan.” Environmental Science & Technology 49 (16): 9807–16. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b02635.
  • Buesseler, K.O. 2012. “Fukushima-Derived Radionuclides in the Ocean and Biota off Japan.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (16): 5984–88. doi:10.1073/pnas.1120794109.
  • Burney, Shaun, Jan Van de Putte, and Heinz Smital. 2016. “The Fukushima Daiichi Accident: Current Status and Marine Impacts.” Greenpeace International Briefings. February. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/briefings/nuclear/2014/Fukushima%20Research%20Briefing_Feb%2025.pdf.
  • Casacuberta, N., P. Masque, J. Garcia-Orellana, R. Garcia-Tenorio, and K.O. Buesseler. 2013. “90Sr and 89Sr in Seawater off Japan as a Consequence of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Accident.” Biogeosciences 10: 3649–59. doi:10.5194/bg-10-3649-2013.
  • Castrillejo, Maxi, Nuria Casacuberta, Crystalline F. Breier, Steven M. Pike, Pere Masque, and Buesseler, Ken O. 2016. “Reassessment of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 134Cs in the Coast off Japan Derived from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Accident.” Environmental Science & Technology 50 (1): 173–80. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b03903.
  • Charette, M.A., C.F. Breier, P.B. Henderson, S.M. Pike, I.I. Rypina, S.R. Jayne, and K.O. Buesseler. 2013. “Radium-Based Estimates of Cesium Isotope Transport and Total Direct Ocean Discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Biogeosciences 10: 2159–67. doi:10.5194/bg-10-2159-2013.
  • Chartin, Caroline, Olivier Evrard, Yuichi Onda, Jeremy Patin, Irene Lafevre, Catherine Ottie, Sophie Ayrault, Hugo Lepage, and Philippe Bonte. 2013. “Tracking the Early Dispersion of Contaminated Sediment along Rivers Draining the Fukushima Radioactive Pollution Plume.” Anthropocene 1: 23–34. doi:10.1016/j.ancene.2013.07.001.
  • Chen, J. 2013. “Evaluation of Radioactivity Concentrations from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident in Fish Products and Associated Risk to Fish Consumers.” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 157 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1093/rpd/nct239.
  • Chen, Jing, Michael W. Cooke, Jean-Francois Mercier, Brian Ahier, Marc Trudel, Greg Workman, Malcolm Wyeth, and Robin Brown. 2014. “A Report on Radioactivity Measurements of Fish Samples from the West Coast of Canada.” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 163 (2): 261–66. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncu150.
  • Chester, A., K. Starosta, C. Andreoiu, R. Ashley, A. Barton, J.C. Brodovitch, M. Brown, et al. 2013. “Monitoring Rainwater and Seaweed Reveals the Presence of 131I in Southwest and Central British Columbia, Canada Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident in Japan.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 124: 205–13. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.05.013.
  • Chino, Masamichi, Hiromasa Nakayama, Haruyasu Nagai, Hiroaki Terada, Genki Katata, and Hiromi Yamazawa. 2012. “Preliminary Estimation of Release Amounts of 131I and 137Cs Accidentally Discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the Atmosphere.” Journal of Nuclear Science & Technology, Rapid Communication, 28 (7): 1129–34. doi:10.1080/18811248.2011.9711799.
  • Conathan, Michael. 2013. “Fukushima Fallout Not Affecting U.S.-Caught Fish.” Center for American Progress. September 11. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/news/2013/09/11/73914/fukushima-fallout-not-affecting-u-s-caught-fish/.
  • Cullen, Jay T. 2013a. “Putting Fukushima in Perspective: A Primer on Radioactivity in the Ocean.” Daily Kos. November 7. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/11/07/1253941/-Putting-Fukushima-in-Perspetive-A-primer-on-radioactivity-in-the-Ocean.
  • ———. 2013b. “What Controls Levels of Fukushima Radioisotopes in Marine Organisms?” Daily Kos. December 11. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/12/11/1261959/-What-Controls-Levels-of-Fukushima-Radioisotopes-in-Marine-Organisms.
  • ———. 2014. “Update on Fukushima Radionuclides in the North Pacific and Off the West Coast of North America.” Daily Kos. January 4. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2014/1/4/1267252/-Update-on-Fukushima-Radionuclides-in-the-North-Pacific-and-Off-the-West-Coast-of-North-America.
  • ———. 2016a. “No Detectable Fukushima Contamination in Alaskan Fish in Early 2016.” Daily Kos. August 11. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2016/08/11/1559237/-No-Detectable-Fukushima-Contamination-in-Alaskan-Fish-in-Early-2016.
  • ———. 2016b. “Pushing the Limit: Fukushima Fingerprint Isotope Found in Pacific Salmon from 2015.” Daily Kos. November 15. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2016/11/15/1599958/-Pushing-the-Limit-Fukushima-Fingerprint-Isotope-Found-in-Pacific-Salmon-from-2015.
  • ———. 2016c. “Update on Fukushima Contamination in Seawater and Fish Near North America.” Daily Kos. December 8. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2016/12/08/1608842/-Update-on-Fukushima-Contamination-in-Seawater-and-Fish-Near-North-America.
  • Daisuke, Tsumune, Takaki Tsubono, Michio Aoyama, and Katsumi Hirose. 2012. “Distribution of Oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Simulated Numerically by a Regional Ocean Model.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 111: 100–108. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.10.007.
  • Domingo, T., K. Zarosta, A. Chester, J. Williams, and P.S. Ross. 2016. “Studying Levels of Fukushima-Derived Radioactivity in Sockeye Salmon Collected on the West Coast of Vancouver Island.” Radiation Physics & Chemistry In Press. doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2016.12.012.
  • Dyer, John. 2016. “Five Years After The Fukushima Disaster, the Fish Are Proliferating.” Vice News. March 11. https://news.vice.com/article/five-years-after-the-fukushima-disaster-the-fish-are-proliferating.
  • Estournel, C., E. Bosc, M. Bocquet, C. Ulses, P. Marsaleix, V. Winiarck, I. Osvath, et al. 2012. “Assessment of the Amount of Cesium-137 Released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Accident and Analysis of Its Dispersion in Japanese Coastal Waters.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 117 (C11014): 1–13. doi:10.1029/2012JC007933.
  • Evrard, Olivier, J. Patrick Laceby, Hugo Lepage, Yuichi Onda, Olivier Cerdan, and Sophie Ayrault. 2015. “Radiocesium Transfer from Hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Review.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 148: 92–110. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.06.018.
  • Fisher, Nicholas S., Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Thomas G. Hinton, Zofia Baumann, Daniel J. Madigan, and Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace. 2013. “Evaluation of Radiation Doses and Associated Risk from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident to Marine Biota and Human Consumers of Seafood.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (26): 10670–75. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221834110.
  • Fisheries Agency of Japan. 2015. “Report on the Monitoring of Radionuclides in Fishery Products (Summary).” April. http://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000100400.pdf.
  • ———. 2017. “Results of the Monitoring on Radioactivity Level in Fisheries Products.” Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Accessed January 19. http://www.jfa.maff.go.jp/e/inspection/.
  • Floyd, Mark. 2014. “Study Finds Only Trace Levels of Radiation from Fukushima in Albacore.” Phys.org. April 29. https://phys.org/news/2014-04-fukushima-albacore.html.
  • Frank, Erica, and Debora Holmes. 2015. “Fukushima Fish: An Ongoing Case Study in Poor Risk Communication.” Integrated Environmental Assessment & Management, Learned Discourses: Timely Scientific Opinions, 11 (3): 726–28. doi:10.1002/ieam.238.
  • Fujimoto, Ken, Shizuho Miki, Hideki Kaeriyama, Yuya Shigenobu, Kaori Takagi, Daisuke Ambe, Tsuneo Ono, et al. 2015. “Use of Otolith for Detecting Strontium-90 in Fish from the Harbor of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.” Environmental Science & Technology 49 (12): 7294–7301. doi:10.1021/3s5051315.
  • “Fukushima across the Pacific.” 2014. Safecast. January 11. http://blog.safecast.org/2014/01/fukushima-across-the-pacific/.
  • Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, and Thomas G. Hinton. 2011. “Fukushima Wildlife Dose Reconstruction Signals Ecological Consequences.” Environmental Science & Technology 45 (12): 5077–78. doi:10.1021/es201637c.
  • Goldstein, Miriam. 2012. “Detectable but Not Hazardous: Radioactive Marine Life of Fukushima.” Deep Sea News. June 1. http://www.deepseanews.com/2012/06/detectable-but-not-hazardous-radioactive-marine-life-of-fukushima/.
  • Greenpeace International. 2016. “Fukushima: Don’t Forget.” Fukushima Disaster. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/nuclear/safety/accidents/Fukushima-nuclear-disaster/.
  • Guilderson, T.P., S.J. Tumey, T.A. Brown, and K.O. Buesseler. 2014. “The 129-Iodine Content of Subtropical Pacific Waters: Impact of Fukushima and Other Anthropogenic 129-Iodine Sources.” Biogeosciences 11: 4839–52. doi:10.5194/bg-11-4839-2014.
  • Higashi, H., Y. Morino, N. Furuichi, and T. Ohara. 2015. “Ocean Dynamic Processes Causing Spatially Heterogeneous Distribution of Sedimentary Caesium-137 Massively Released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.” Biogeosciences 12: 7107–28. doi:10.5194/bg-12-7107-2015.
  • Hirose, Katsumi. 2016. “Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident: Atmospheric and Oceanic Impacts over the Years.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 157: 113–30. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.01.011.
  • Honda, Makio C., and Hajime Kawakami. 2014. “Sinking Velocity of Particulate Radiocesium in the Northwestern North Pacific.” Geophysical Research Letters 41 (11): 3959–65. doi:10.1002/2014GL060126.
  • Honda, M.C., H. Kawakami, S. Watanabe, and T. Saino. 2013. “Concentration and Vertical Flux of Fukushima-Derived Radiocesium in Sinking Particles from Two Sites in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.” Biogeosciences 10: 3525–34. doi:10.5194/bg-10-3525-2013.
  • Horiguchi, Toshihiro, Hiroshi Yoshii, Satoshi Mizuno, and Hiroaki Shiraishi. 2016. “Decline in Intertidal Biota after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Field Observations.” Scientific Reports 6 (20416): 1–12. doi:10.1038/srep20416.
  • “How Radioactive Is Our Ocean?” 2014. WHOI News Releases. January 14. http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=119916&tid=3622&cid=184949&c=2.
  • Inomata, Y., M. Aoyama, T. Tsubono, D. Tsumune, and K. Hirose. 2015. “Spatial and Temporal Distributions of 134Cs and 137Cs Derived from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in the North Pacific Ocean by Using Optimal Interpolation Analysis.” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 18 (1): 126–36. doi:10.1039/C5EM00324E.
  • Inoue, M., H. Kofuji, Y. Hamajima, S. Nagao, K. Yoshida, and M. Yamamoto. 2012. “134Cs and 137Cs Activities in Coastal Seawater along Northern Sanriku and Tsugaru Strait, Northeastern Japan, after Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Environmental Impacts of the Fukushima Accident, 111: 116–19. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.09.012.
  • Iwata, Kayoko, Keiko Tagami, and Shigeo Uchida. 2013. “Ecological Half-Lives of Radiocesium in 16 Species in Marine Biota after the TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Environmental Science & Technology 47 (14): 7696–7703. doi:10.1021/es400491b.
  • Johansen, Mathew P., Elizabeth Ruedig, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida, Kathryn Higley, and Nicholas A. Beresford. 2015. “Radiological Dose Rates to Marine Fish from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: The First Three Years across the North Pacific.” Environmental Science & Technology 49 (3): 1277–85. doi:10.1021/es505064d.
  • Kaeriyama, Hideki. 2016. “Oceanic Dispersion of Fukushima-Derived Radioactive Cesium: A Review.” Fisheries Oceanography In Press (Tsunami Special Issue): 1–15. doi:10.1111/fog.12177.
  • Kamenik, J., H. Dulaiova, K.O. Buesseler, S.M. Pike, and K. Stastna. 2013. “Cesium-134 and 137 Activities in the Central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Biogeosciences 10: 6045–52. doi:10.5194/bg-10-6045-2013.
  • Kanda, J. 2013. “Continuing 137Cs Release to the Sea from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant through 2012.” Biogeosciences Discuss 10: 3277–3595. doi:10.5194/bgd-10-3577-2013.
  • Karam, Andrew. 2016. “Five Years Later, Cutting through the Fukushima Myths.” Popular Mechanics. March 11. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/a19871/fukushima-five-years-later/.
  • Katata, G., M. Chino, T. Kobayashi, H. Terada, M. Ota, H. Nagai, M. Kajino, et al. 2015. “Detailed Source Term Estimation of the Atmospheric Release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident by Coupling Simulations of an Atmospheric Dispersion Model with an Improved Deposition Scheme and Oceanic Dispersion Model.” Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 15 (2): 1029–70. doi:10.5194/acp-15-1029-2015.
  • Kawamura, Hideyuki, Takuya Kobayashi, Akiko Furuno, Teiji In, Yoichi Ishikawa, Tomoharu Nakayama, Shigeki Shima, and Toshiyuki Awaji. 2012. “Preliminary Numerical Experiments on Oceanic Dispersion of 131I and 137Cs Discharged into the Ocean because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.” Journal of Nuclear Science & Technology, Rapid Communication, 28 (11): 1349–56. doi:10.1080/18811248.2011.9711826.
  • Keum, Dong-Kwon, In Jun, Byeong-Ho Kim, Kwang-Muk Lim, and Yong-Ho Choi. 2015. “A Dynamic Model to Estimate the Activity Concentration and Whole Body Dose Rate of Marine Biota as Consequences of a Nuclear Accident.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 140: 84–94. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.11.006.
  • Keum, Dong-Kwon, Byeong-Ho Kim, Kwang-Muk Lim, and Choi, Yong-Ho. 2014. “Radiation Exposure to Marine Biota around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.” Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 186 (5): 2949–56. doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3592-6.
  • Khannanov, Artur, Vadim V. Nekljudov, Bulat Gareev, Airat Kiiamov, James M. Tour, and Ayrat M. Dimiev. 2017. “Oxidatively Modified Carbon as Efficient Material for Removing Radionuclides from Water.” Carbon 115 (May): 394–401. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2017.01.025.
  • Kitamura, M., Y. Kumamoto, H. Kawakami, E.C. Cruz, and K. Fujikara. 2013. “Horizontal Distribution of Fukushima-Derived Radiocesium in Zooplankton in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.” Biogeosciences 10: 5729–38. doi:10.5194/bg-10-5729-2013.
  • Kobayashi, Takuya, Haruyasu Nagai, Masamichi Chino, and Hideyuki Kawamura. 2013. “Source Term Estimation of Atmospheric Release due to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident by Atmospheric and Oceanic Dispersion Simulations.” Journal of Nuclear Science & Technology 50 (3): 255–64. doi:10.1080/00223131.2013.772449.
  • Kratchman, Jessica, Chuck Norton, and Robert Bernardo. 2015. “Fukushima Water Contamination: Impacts on the U.S. West Coast (Updated 2015).” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. http://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1502/ML15021A530.pdf.
  • Kryshev, I.I., A.I. Kryshev, and T.G. Sazykina. 2012. “Dynamics of Radiation Exposure to Marine Biota in the Area of the Fukushima NPP in March-May 2011.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 114: 157–61. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2012.04.015.
  • Kryshev, I.I., and T.G. Sazykina. 2011. “Evaluation of the Irradiation Dose Rate for Marine Biota in the Region of the Destroyed Fukushima Reactor (Japan) in March-May 2011.” Atomic Energy 111 (1): 55–60. doi:10.1007/s10512-011-9453-x.
  • Kumamoto, Yuichiro, Michio Aoyama, Yasunori Hamajima, Tatsuo Aono, Shinya Kouketsu, Akihiki Murata, and Takeshi Kawano. 2014. “Southward Spreading of the Fukushima-Derived Radiocesium across the Kuroshio Extension in the North Pacific.” Scientific Reports 4 (4276): 1–9. doi:10.1038/srep.04276.
  • Kusakabe, M., S. Oikawa, H. Takata, and J. Misonoo. 2013. “Spatiotemporal Distributions of Fukushima-Derived Radionuclides in Nearby Marine Surface Sediments.” Biogeosciences 10: 5019–30. doi:10.5194/bg-10-5019-2013.
  • Little, Mark P., Richard Wakeford, Ande Bouville, and Steven L. Simon. 2016. “Measurement of Fukushima-Related Radioactive Contamination in Aquatic Species.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (14): 3720–21. doi:10.1073/pnas.1602648113.
  • Loew, Tracy. 2016. “Fukushima Radiation Has Reached U.S. Shores.” Statesman Journal, December 9. http://www.statesmanjournal.com/story/tech/science/environment/2016/12/07/fukushima-radiation-has-reached-us-shores/95045692/.
  • Maderich, V., K.T. Jung, R. Bezhenar, G. de With, F. Qiao, N. Casacuberta, P. Masque, and Y.H. Kim. 2014. “Dispersion and Fate of 90Sr in the Northwestern Pacific and Adjacent Seas: Global Fallout and the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident.” Science of The Total Environment 494–495: 261–71. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.136.
  • Madigan, D.J., Z. Baumann, and N.S. Fisher. 2012. “Pacific Bluefin Tuna Transport Fukushima-Derived Radionuclides from Japan to California.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (24): 9483–86. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204859109.
  • Martin, P.G., S. Kwong, N.T. Smith, Y. Yamashiki, O.D. Payton, F.S. Russell-Pavier, J.S. Fardoulis, D.A. Richards, and T.B. Scott. 2016. “3D Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Radiation Mapping for Assessing Contaminant Distribution and Mobility.” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation & Geoinformation 52: 12–19. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2016.05.007.
  • Martin, P.G., O.D. Payton, Y. Yamashiki, D.A. Richards, and T.B. Scott. 2016. “High-Resolution Radiation Mapping to Investigate FDNPP Derived Contaminant Migration.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 164: 26–35. doi:10.1016/j.envrad.2016.06.025.
  • Martini, Kim. 2013. “True Facts about Ocean Radiation and the Fukushima Disaster.” Deep Sea News. November 28. http://www.deepseanews.com/2013/11/true-facts-about-ocean-radiation-and-the-fukushima-disaster/.
  • McLean, Craig. 2014. “All The Best, Scientifically Verified, Information on Fukushima Impacts.” Deep Sea News. January 8. http://www.deepseanews.com/2014/01/all-the-best-scientifically-verified-information-on-fukushima-impacts/.
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